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Author(s) Wolf, S., Biral, F., Saupe, D.
Title Adaptive feedback system for optimal pacing strategies in road cycling
Abstract In road cycling, the pacing strategy plays an important role, especially in solo events like individual time trials. Nevertheless, not much is known about pacing under varying conditions. Based on mathematical models, optimal pacing strategies were derived for courses with varying slope or wind, but rarely tested for their practical validity. In this paper, we present a framework for feedback during rides in the field based on optimal pacing strategies and methods to update the strategy if conditions are different \remove{during the ride} than expected in the optimal pacing strategy. To update the strategy, two solutions based on model predictive control and proportional-integral-derivative control respectively are presented. Real rides are simulated inducing perturbations like unexpected wind or errors in the model parameter estimates, e.g., rolling resistance. It is shown, that the performance drops below the best achievable one taking into account the perturbations, when the strategy is not updated. This is mainly due to premature exhaustion or unused energy resources at the end of the ride. Both proposed strategy updates handle those problems and ensure that a performance close to the best under the given conditions is delivered.