Last revision: November 12, 2017
describes the orientation (content) of action exhibited in a person’s pattern of reactions to a known pattern of stimuli or events. Synonyms: ►Moral attitudes, values, motives, drives.The consiously articulated moral orientations we call moral values. Whether moral values are related to a person's actual moral competence is a much debated, empirical question.
describes the competence (structure) exhibited in a person’s pattern of reactions to a known pattern of stimuli or events. The consciously articulated moral reasons we call moral judgment or moral reasoning. Whether moral reasoning is related to a person's actual moral competence is a much debated, empirical question.
Dual Aspect Model of Moral Behavior
Moral behavior is defined and described by these two aspects: moral orientations and moral competence. These aspects of behavior must be clearly distinguished from one another because they are of a different nature and must be measured differently. They additionally have different origins and need different treatment in education and therapy. But aspects cannot be separated from each other, nor from behavior. They are not components.
comprises the unconscious layer of thinking and behavior as described by the Dual-Aspect Model of moral behavior and the conscious layer of verbal moral reasoning and judgment as decribed by Piaget and Kohlberg.
Dual-Aspect-Dual-Layer Model of the Moral Self
– GL (27.6.15)
Education Theory of Moral Development
has been suggested by Lind (2002) to explain, predict and foster moral competence. It contrast both to genetic theories of moral development (inborn morality, invariant sequence of stages of development) and to socialization theories (imprinting of moral habitus by cultures, sub-cultures, nations, or religious dogmas). The theory’s core assumptions are:
– GL (26.6.15)
is a method for fostering moral (and democratic) competence developed by Georg Lind in the 1990-ties.
The KMDD grew out of the Blatt-Kohlberg-method of dilemma discussion (KBM) , but it has several new features and changes:
in the scientific sense, morality means the total of our internal orientations which guide our behavior, that is, it also includes internal orientations (principles, conscience, rules, values, etc.) which may from a social point of view be considered 'immoral' or 'unlawful'. According to Lawrence Kohlberg six different forms or types of moral orientations can be distinguished.
Since morality is defined by internal factors, it can be properly assessed only when internal standards are used for measurement. This means that most current approaches to psychological measurement are invalid. In contrast, the Moral Competence Test (MCT) uses internal moral orientations as a criterion for scoring (cf. Lind & Nowak, 2015).
is defined as behavior which is based on internal moral orientations (principles, ideals, values etc.). It needs to be distinguished from rigid, moralistic behavior, which is behavior that follows one, and only one, rule at the expense of any other relevant moral considerations.
is the ability to solve problems and conflicts on the basis of universal moral principles through deliberation and discussion, instead of through violence, deceit or bowing down to others.
More specifically, moral competence is the ability to judge arguments in regard to their moral quality instead of their opinion-agreement.
Synonyms: Reason [Vernunft]. See: Moral Competence Test
lets us simultaneously measure the two basic aspects of moral behavior: moral orientations (attitudes, values) and moral competence (structure) as manifested in a person’s pattern of reaction to a known pattern of stimuli, that is, pattern of reactions to arguments to be judged for their acceptability for this person.
The index for moral competence, the "C-score" reflects the degree to which the participant judges the given arguments on the basis of their moral quality (the moral orientations which they represent) instead on the basis of their opinion-agreement or other aspects of the arguments.
The MCT was formerly named the Moral Judgement Test (MJT) and, in German, Moralisches Urteil-Test (MUT).
Reading: Lind, G. (2008). The meaning and measurement of moral judgment competence revisited: A dual-aspect model. In: D. Fasko & W. Willis, eds., Contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on moral development and education. Cresskill. NJ: Hampton Press, pp. 185 – 220.
– GL (26.6.15)
is a situation in which a person cannot solve a problem without violating one or more of his or her moral ideals, orientations, or principles.
Moral Judgment Competence
is “the capacity to make decisions and judgments which are moral (i.e., based on internal >moral orientations) and to act in accordance with such judgments.”
are internal rules, principles, ideals etc. which guide a person's pattern of behavior. They comprise all kinds of guiding rules, not only those we consider of high moral quality form an ethical point of view. Moral oreintations are one of the >two aspects of moral behavior. In our model, moral orientations which manifest themselves in our behavior belong to the >unconscious layer of human functioning. There is still little research into the relationship between our unconscious, tacit moral orientations and our articulate moral beliefs and principles (layer of ethical reasoning).
There are two competing theories about the origins of moral orientations: One hypothesizes that moral orientations origin from society, that is, the ethical theories and believe held by the society (or culture, social classs, or milieu) into which one is born. The other hypothesizes that moral orientations are largely inborn and origin in the poeple's moral feelings. I think that this controvery is (at least partly) caused by a confusion of the >layers of consciousness that is meant when speaking of moral orientations.
Segmentation, moral-cognitive S.
If one’s >moral competence is considerably lower in a dilemma situation than in another one, we speak of moral segmentation. This happens when a person turns over responsibility for judgment to an external authority like religion, ideology, military command, or professional ethics instead of using his or her own reason to solve the dilemma.
Segmentation, moral-affective S.
Lowering of one’s moral orientations in certain situations. Moral-affective regression has been rarely observed. Some participants seem to simulate their moral orientations down in interviews for ‘moral understatement’.
M. W. (1981). A critical appraisal of the education and psychological perspectives
on moral discussion. Journal of Educational Thought, 15, 20-33.
"Hawthorne effect". In the first half of the last century E. Mayo and his colleagues examined in a series of experiments the influence of the lighting conditions at the work place on the productivity. They found that the productivity under all light conditions increased. As explanation one stated however later that not the lighting conditions released the effect, but the fact that at all someone worried about the employer-employee relationships of the workers. The experiments took place in the Hawthorne works of the Western Electric company.