New Publications & References

Home | Author | (c) Georg Lind
Last revision: Nov. 11, 2019





Media Reports

Reference Lists:
Publications by Georg Lind

Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion (KMDD)

Moral Competence Research (MCT...)

Programm Evaluation, ITSE (Self-Evaluation)

Open Classroom, Individualized Learning

Slide Shows

The different language versions may contain different slides (Access):

Annotated Bibliography

"My" Moral Philosophers

Educational Research annotated

Moral Psychology Research annotated



nowa 2013
Click on the cover for more info

lind 1985

See also new publications on measurement and evaluation below

Fostering Moral-Democratic Competence

Lind, G. (2019). How to teach moral competence. Berlin: Logos.
Downoad: Ch. 4 How to make moral competence visible

Akin, Asli (2018). Religiöse Erziehung und Moralentwicklung. Der Einfluss einer religiös geprägten Kindheit auf die moralische Orientierung und Kompetenz. Bachelorarbeit in Psychologie. Hochschule für Gesundheit und Medizin, Berlin.

"Zusammenfassung: Die bisherige moralpsychologische Forschung zeigt, dass Bildungseinrichtungen einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der moralischen Orientierung und Kompetenz haben. In der nachstehenden quantitativen Untersuchung wurde der Einfluss der frühkindlichen Erziehungserfahrungen auf die moralischen Fähigkeiten erforscht. Da die Moralerziehung von Kindern häufig mit religiösen Normen und Werten verbunden wird, und Religionen aktuell in ihrer Bedeutung und Funktionalität im öffentlichen Diskurs stehen, wurde speziell die religiöse Moralerziehung in ihrer Wirkung auf die moralische Entwicklung empirisch ergründet. Dazu wurden Studierende verschiedener Fachrichtungen aus Berlin zur religiösen Prägung in ihrer frühkindlichen Erziehung befragt und in Bezug auf ihre moralische Orientierung und Kompetenz untersucht. Den messmethodischen Rahmen bilden der Moralische- Kompetenz-Test nach Lind und der selbstkonstruierte sowie im Voraus pilotierte Fragebogen zur Erfassung der religiösen Erziehung und Religiosität. Die Auswertung der Online-Studie konnte zeigen, dass die moralischen Fähigkeiten bei dogmatisch religiös erzogenen Studierenden signifikant vermindert ausfallen und dabei nicht auf unterschiedliche Bildungserfahrungen oder das gegenwärtige Beibehalten der Religiosität zurückzuführen sind."

Note: As the author told me, the absolute effect size (differences of the mean scores) between dogmatic-religiously raised and other university students was huge, namely 31,8 C-points on a scale from 0 to 100! Such an effect size is not ´just "significant" but very large. GL.


(Graphic on the basis of data by Aslin Akin 2018; personal communication)

Doehne, M., von Grundherr, M., & Schäfer, M. (2018). Peer influence in bullying: The autonomy-enhancing effect of moral competence. Aggressive Behavior, 44, 591-600. doi:

Abstract: "Research has found that moral competence is negatively associated with bullying behavior in schools, but the drivers of this association are not yet well understood. In this paper, we report on two studies which suggest that moral competence acts as a moderator of peer influence in the context of school bullying. Data were collected at two time points in three German higher secondary schools (grades 7–10, average age at measurement: 14.26 years). Using a cross-lagged panel design (CLPD), study 1 (N = 251) found adolescents with low moral competence to be susceptible to peer influence, while no such effect was found for adolescents with high moral competence. Study 2, a cross-sectional analysis (N = 748), found moral competence to be inversely related to the likelihood of an individual's conforming with the pro-bullying behavior of his or her peers. Neither study found corresponding effects for pro-social, defending behavior. Our findings further illuminate the associations between moral competence, peer influence, and school bullying. Some implications for bullying prevention are discussed."

Dutka, Joanna (2017). For a future free of violence: Moral competencies As a means of emancipation and self-empowerment. Ethics in Progress (ISSN 2084-9257) Vol. 8 (2017) No.1, Art #14, pp. 225-240. Doi 10.14746/eip.2017.1.14

"In this paper I will explore the idea that protection from interpersonal violence is essential for making society more democratic, and in turn that education which focuses moral- democratic competencies is an appropriate means of helping people affected by interpersonal violence. I will specifically explain how the self-empowerment of people subjected to violence or endangered by the potential use of violence, can make a positive contribution to violence prevention. This selfempowerment goes hand in hand with the growth of competencies. I view this matter as complementary to the issue of preventing potential perpetrators from acting violently, by providing them with the opportunity to foster their own competencies.
I will also discuss gender-based violence and the situation of women affected by abuse, in order to support my claims with some empirical evidence. In this context, the type of violence I refer to is physical violence - acts of violence targeting the body of a person. Therefore, I will also explore the problem of violence prevention in the context of the struggle for women's emancipation and gender equality. This paper will also refer to the idea of moraldemocratic competencies, following Georg Lind, who bases many of his ideas on the earlier works of his teacher, Lawrence Kohlberg. The view of democracy as way of life, which Lind supports in his work, corresponds to the vision of democratic relations in society which can be found in the writings of feminist political thinkers such as Iris Marion Young, Nancy Fraser and Ann Phillips."

Steć, Małgorzata (2017). Is the stimulation of moral competence with KMDD® well-suited for our brain? A perspective from neuroethics. Ethics in Progress, Vol. 8, No. 2. DOI:

Abstract: "This article is an attempt to show that the KMDD® method is the best for both our brain and our moral functioning, which undoubtedly has its basis in the brain. At the same time, it is an attempt to draw attention to the importance of planning interventions (e.g. at the educational level) which stimulate moral development in accordance with the psychological and neurobiological functioning of an individual. The paper briefly presents the neuropsychological context of moral functioning, and then a series of arguments in support of the thesis that the scientifically proven effectiveness of using the KMDD® method has its support in adapting the method not only to one's pattern of individual behavior, but also to the proper functioning of one's brain."

Reinicke, Martina (2017). Inclusion and moral competence. Hypotheses about two closely related tasks of the school. Ethics in Progress, Vol. 8, No. 2,  DOI:

Abstract: "In my article, I will give a short historical overview of inclusion-research. The focus lies on relation between moral and inclusion. I will introduce three branches of inclusion research and deduce my definition of inclusion from it. Inclusion can be understood as a dynamic process of realizing of equal participation on the one hand and of entitlement to diversity on the other hand. That means, inclusion lives from the solution of its immanent conflict- the conflict between equality and diversity. Therefore, I assume that “the ability to solve problems and conflicts on the basis of universal moral principles by means of deliberation and discussion, instead of using violence, deceit and coercion, or more specifically… the ability to judge arguments in regard to their moral quality instead of their opinion-agreement” (Lind 2016) is urgently needed. This ability is an important precondition for realizing inclusion. Following educational theory of morality by Lind and others, it’s not necessary to change the moral attitudes (moral orientation) in persons that are involved in the process of inclusion. It’s more important to improve their inclusive ability and their inclusive behavior. Inclusive behavior means a behavior with which shows recognition of both: of diversity of all as well as of the dignity of each individual. On this theoretical basis, I furthermore want to introduce a little research project carried out by the author in Vocational School Centre. The aim of this project was to improve the inclusive behavior by using the Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion®.

Now available as free download!
Schillinger, Marcia (2006). Learning environments and moral development: How university education fosters moral judgment competence in Brazil and two German-speaking countries. Aachen: Shaker-Verlag. download

Lind, G. (2018). Demokratie-Erziehung. Online Journal: news4teachers. Teil 1 | Teil 2 | Teil 3 | Teil 4 ... mehr | Democratic Education (transl.)

Lind, G. (2017). Moralerziehung auf den Punkt gebracht. Schwalbach/Ts.: Wochenschau-Verlag. more, Bestellung.

Lind, G. (2016). How to teach morality. Promoting deliberation and discussion, Reducing violence and deceit. Berlin: Logos.[This book uses "Moral ist lehrbar" as a basis but contains more findings, more graphs and discusses more international literature on the topic.] Pre-publication chapters

Lind, G. (2015). Moral ist lehrbar. Wie man moralisch-demokratische Fähigkeiten fördern und damit Gewalt, Betrug und Macht mindern kann. 3. erweitere, überarbeitete Auflage. Berlin: Logos. ... more
[Abstract] Leseprobe

Nowak, E., Schrader, D. & Zizek, B., eds. (2013), Educating competencies for democracy. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag. Flyer

Prehn, K. (2013). Moral judgment competence: A re-evaluation of the Dual-Aspect Theory based on recent neuroscientific research. In: E. Nowak, D. Schrader & B. Zizek., eds., Educating competencies for democracy, pp. 9-22. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag... more

Reinicke, Martina (2017). Moralkompetenz 4.0. -- eine Aufgabe der Schule? (Eigenverlag. Bestellung: m.reinick[ät] more

Reinicke, M. (2017). Moral Competence Reloaded. (Eigenverlag. Bestellung: m.reinick[ät] more

> More publications on fostering moral competence and related topics

> All publicatiopns by Georg Lind


New Publications: Measurement & Evaluation

Lind, G. (2017). Donders Dilemma. Ist eine internale und objektive Messung von Moralkompetenz möglich? Beitrag zur Moralforschertagung 26.-27. 1. 2017 in Leipzig. Universität Leipzig. ... Slides

Lind, G. (2016). Die Bedeutsamkeit empirischer Befunde: Statistische Signifikanz vs. relative vs. absolute Effektstärken. Erweiterter Vortrag. (überarbeitete Neuauflage mit neuem Vorwort) more [Effect sizes: statistical, practical, and theoretical significance of empirical studies. A continuously revised and corrected presentation since 1985; 2014 Version: in "Marktforschung - Das Portal für Markt-, Medien- und Meinungsforschung".

Lind, G. & Nowak, E. (2015). Kohlberg’s unnoticed dilemma – The external assessment of internal moral competence? In: B. Zizek, D. Garz & E. Nowak, eds., Kohlberg Revisited, pp 179-154. Rotterdam: Sense Publisher. ... more

Lind, G. (2015). The Art of Experimental Moral Psychology. Thoughts in Progress, Ideas for Research. Research paper. ... more

Lind, G. (2011). Verbesserung des Unterrichts durch Selbstevaluation. Ein Plädoyer für unverzerrte Evidenz. [Improvement of teaching through self-evaluation. A plea for unbiased evidence.] In: J. Bellmann & T. Müller, Hg.: Wissen, was wirkt. Kritik evidenzbasierter Pädagogik. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozial­wissenschaften. ISBN 978-3-531-17688-8.... more [access info ] password = "kohlberg"]

Lind, G. (2011). Selbst ist die Schule! Fremd- versus Selbstevaluation. Grundschule 4/2011, 24-26. ... more

Lind, G. (2009). Amerika als Vorbild? Erwünschte und unerwünschte Folgen aus Evaluationen. [America as role model? Desired and undesired consequences of evaluation.] In: T. Bohl & H. Kiper., eds., Lernen aus Evaluationsergebnissen – Verbesserungen planen und implementieren, pp. 61-79. Bad Heilbrunn: Julius Klinkhardt.
Vollständige Fassung mit den nicht publizierten Kapiteln über „Bildung und Evaluation in den USA“ und „Programmevaluation":
... more

> More publications on the meaning and measurement of moral competence and related topics

>All publicatiopns by Georg Lind