Validation and Certification Procedure
for the Moral Competence Test*

Home | (c) Georg Lind | Last revision: July 12, 2016

Turn on java script to use this automated translations service.
Note that automated translations may contain fatal errors.

Publications on the MCT and related topics ... more

Copyright ... more


Validation Procedure | Submitting the MCT for Certification | Copyright Statement | Certified Foreign Language Versions | International MCT-Studies

* Formerly the MCT was called Moral Judgment Test (MJT). German: MKT instead of MUT

Before being used in research and evaluation studies, new translations of the MCT and new subtests must be submitted to a rigorous validation and certification procedure as outlines in Lind (2010). Only certified versions can be viewed as producing data that can be interpreted according to the Dual Aspect Theory of moral judgment and development, and can be compared with findings from studies with other language versions of the MCT. Please find a list of certified versions of the MCT below.

Validation Procedure

Sample: The standard validation study is done with a sample that contains subjects of four levels of education to maximize the size of true variance in the C-score. The education level of each sub-sample should be two years apart. This should help to produce a substantial variance in your validation sample. In a homogenous sample with to little variance of the C-score, the true variance of the C-score may be too small in relationship to the error variance, thus not allowing a reliable estimation of the MCT's validity.

New (Oct. 29, 2012): By "substantial" we mean that the inter-quartile range should be at least >20 C-points. Inter-quartile range is defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest quartile: Q75 - Q25. This should be checked on a regular base.

The validation sampling plan should look like this one:

Suggested Sampling Design for Cross-sectional Validation Study
Sample Size **
Level of Education Old New *
- 7th graders - 7th graders
  - 9th graders
- 9th graders - 12th graders
- 11th graders - First year college students
Total Number of Subjects

* Sample 2 is now the standard validation sample (June 22, 2003). The option for another design (sample 1) has been ommitted and the number of "educational levels"-groups has been increased from three to four to make the validation process more standardized. If this design cannot be realized one can modify it. However, if the resulting variance is not substantial, the findings may be inconclusive.

** To be taken from at least two different groups (classes, seminars etc.). Please sample from public education only (if possible). The required sample size has been increased from 20 to 40 because it seems advisable to include always two different schools and two different fields of study in the validation sample. Otherwise, the results can be too idiosyncratic for aparticular group studied.
I recommend to avoid extrinsic rewards (like money) for the participation in this study. The participation rate is mostly higher if the insgtrinsic values of this study is emphasized. Dealing with the dilemmas seems already to be self-rewarding to most people.

Application: The standard validation procedure involves group application of the standard form of the MCT (two dilemmas, standard ordering of items) without time pressure. Please indicate if your study deviates from this standard in any way. If you use the MCT as part of a larger test battery, please note that tiredness can lower the C-score. Therefore, you may want to present the MCT as one of the first tests.

For the criteria of validation see this paper: An Introduction into the Moral Judgment Test.

Submitting a new MCT for Certification

For submitting a new MCT for certification, the raw data of the validation study of the new version of the MCT must be send to the author of the MCT, Dr. Georg Lind, University of Konstanz (

Please send the following items through electronic mail:

  • Raw data in text format (without any formatting, also called Unicode, ASCII code or ANSI code) or in MS-Excel format (versions until 2007; no ".xlsx"). For an example see the last row in the table here. The data for each unit (subject) must be on one row by itself; each variable must be delimited by a semi-colon (";"); no non-numbers should be inserted. If the data are stored in a statistical package, they may be exported from this in ASCII format, chosing proper options. If available, export also the variable names with the data.
    The file should contain all 26 items (variables) of the MCT. Besides this, the file should also contain a counter variable for each questionnaire (to be able to identify the original data if necessary), and variables for the level and kind of education, gender, and any other variable which can help to validate the data.
    Note: Please do not sort the MCT-items in any way! Sorting is prone to error and makes analysis more dififcult.

  • Detailed description of each variable. Please use unique descriptors for the MCT items like W_P_2, standing for: Workers dilemma, Pro-arguments, Stage 2, and D_C_4, standing for: Doctor dilemma, Con-argument, Stage 4. This will help to identify the items by my electronic scoring program.

  • Short description of the research design: Test instruction; gender, ages, and level and quality of education of subjects; numbers of total sample and subsamples. A description of the quality of education (aside from the level of formal education) helps to better understand the size of correlation with the C-score.

The validation data will be used only for certifying the new MCT version, and will not be published without the explicit consent of the author of the new or translated version.

Certified Versions of the Moral Competence Test (MCT)

(provisonally validated, non-certified versions have an asterik*)

For certification, each test version must be submitted to a valiation study according to the guidelines here, and the resulting raw data must be given to the auhtor of the MCT, Dr. Lind, for validity analysis. Test versions are only certified as valid if they agree clearly with the three rigorous criteria of the guidelines. They are declared "provisionally valid" if the data are inconclusive, that is, if they do not contradict the claim of validity nor support it.

*Note: Tests not listed here are not certified and not authorized to use the copy-righted mark "Moral Competence Test", or "MCT", or "Moralisches Kompetenz Test", or "MKT" or an equivalent mark in other languages. Formerly, the MCT was called Moral Judgment Test (MJT).
To obtain a copy of any of the validate language versions of the MCT write to Dr. Lind. Please describe your institutional affiliation and research interest.

  Language Author(s) of the Test / Translation Validation Study Downloadable?

Copyright text for all versions of the MCT

Please replace the copyright text of all versions except English and German with this text

1 Deutsch (Master copy), standard version, 2 Dilemmas, age 10 up) Prof. Dr. Georg Lind, University of Konstanz, Germany YES
  Deutsch, simplified standard Version (3rd grade; age 8 years upwards) Prof. Dr. Georg Lind, University of Konstanz, Germany, adaptation by Mrs. Crhistine Naegel
  Deutsch, elementary school version * (3rd grade), not standard, different dilemma

Prof. Dr. Klaus Zierer, Germany (contact Dr. Zierer for copy and scoring code: klaus.zierer at
Not certified yet; only one dilemma

2 Arabic * (Morocco) Dr. Ahmed Aghbal, Faculty of education, Rabat, Marocco. (2003- ) (provisionally validated) YES

Armenia * (not fully validated yet)

Meri Avetisyan, M.A., Armenian State Pedagogical University, Erivan, Armenia YES (provisionally valid)
4 Basque

Prof. Santiago Palacios Navarro, sicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, UPV, Universidad del País Vasco, Spain (1982)

5 Chinese / PR

Zhao Zhanqiang M.A., Hebei Teachers University, Shijiazhuang (2003); Wu Huihong, Nanjing Normal University of China, N=639, provided the data for final certification (2004).

6 Chinese / Taiwan Dr. Chi-Ming Lee, National Taiwan Normal University
YES (unavailable)
7 Croatian Prof. Suncana Kukolja Taradi, Faculty of Medicine, Zagreb --
8 Czech * (not fully validated yet) Dr. Birgita Slovácková, University of Prague, Czech Republic. (1999) YES
9 Dutch / Belgium Dr. Bart Duriez & Pieter-Jan De Marez, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium YES
10 Dutch / Netherlands Prof. Michael Gross, Ph.D., University of Haifa, Israel. (1992)  
11 English Dr. Georg Lind, University of Konstanz, Germany  
12 Finnish Dr. Matti Ylén, Helsinki, University of Tampere, Finland --
13 Français * (not fully validated yet) Prof. Michael Gross, Ph.D., University of Haifa, Israel, et al. -- (provisionally valid)
14 Georgian Natia Mestvirishvili, Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University, Georgia, in cooperation with Prof. Luiza Arutinova and Prof. Maia Mestvirishvili, Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University YES
15 Greek * (not fully validated yet) Prof. Katerina Mouratidou, University of Serres, Greece YES (provisionally valid)
16 Hebrew First version: Prof. Michael Gross, Ph.D., University of Haifa, Israel (1992).
New version: Hagit Turjeman, Ph.D., Western Galilee Collage, and Irit Ein-Tal, Ph.D., Yezreel Valley Collage, Israel
17 Hungarian * (not validated yet) Dr. Ibolya Vári-Szilágyi und Julia Szekszardi, Hungarian Academy of Science, Budapest, Hungary, 1994  
18 Iranian * (Persian) Dr. Soudabeh Saeidi, University of Konstanz, Germany YES (provisionally valid)
19 Italien Prof. Anna Laura Comunian, Univedrsity of Padua, Italy YES
20 Korean Prof. Gyun Yeol Park, Department of Moral Education, Teachers College, Gyeongsang National University, South Korea YES
21 Latvian Mr. Gints YES
22 Macedonian Marijana Handziska,M.A., Republic of Macedonia. (2001) YES
23 Malaysian Anwar Latif, Ph.D., fakulti bahasa moden dan komunikasi, university putra malaysia, 43400 serdang, malaysia  
24 Pakistan (Urdu) Abdul Wahab Liaqat, MA student, Educational Psychology at International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan Article by A W Liaquat
YES (fully valid) 2012
25 Philippine Mrs. Jasmine Tuboro, M.A., Davao City, Philippines --
26 Polish
Drs. Benon Bromberek, Dr. Aleksandra Cizlak, Prof. Dr. Ewa Nowak YES
27 Portuguese (Portugal)
Last revision: June 2005
Co-authors: Dr. Patricia Bataglia, Dr. Marcia Schillinger-Agati M.A., Prof. Menezes, Dr. Ribeiro  
28 Portuguese (Brazil)
Prof. Dr. Patricia Bataglia, Sao Paolo University, Brazil, & Dr. Marcia Schillinger, University of Konstanz, Germany YES , Article
29 Portuguese (Brazil), additional subtest: Judge Steinberg Prof. Dr. Patricia Bataglia, Dr. Marcia Schillinger-Agati & Dr. Georg Lind, Brazil/Germany YES
30 Romanian

Tatiana Chicu, Faculty of Psychology, Titu Maiorescu University,
Beatrice Popescu & Stefania Puschila, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bucharest
Dr. Iuliana Lupu, Dept of Psychology, University of Konstanz

31 Russian Mr. Ilya Krumer, Latvian University, Latvia YES

Merging in progress

Mrs. Milica Milojevic, doctoral student of psychology, Nis, Serbia.
Mrs. Ivana Mitrovic, ???, Serbia.
YES (both versions)
33 Sinhala * (Sri Lanka) (not fully validated yet) Dr. Sanjee Perera, Hope University, Liverpool, UK. (2002) (provisionally valid)
34 Slovakian Mgr. Petra Lajciakova (in progress), Department of Pedagogical Psychology of Faculty of Social Science, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia YES, provisionally valid
35 Slovenian * (only doctor dilemma), not standard; not certified yet Unknown translator, University of Lubljana, former Yugoslavia, 1977  
36 Spanish Prof. José Luis Trechera, University of Córtoba, Spain, (1996)
& Prof. Cristina Moreno and Prof. Roberto Hernández, University of Monterrey, Monterrey, México. (1999)

YES, Mexican

37 Swedish Kerstin Weimer, Ph.D. candidate, Division of Psychology, Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Campus Östersund YES
38 Tamil (Sri Lanka) * (not fully validated yet) Dr. Sanjee Perera, M.A., Hope University, Liverpool, UK. (2002) (provisional validation)


Prof. Sanguan Lerkiatbundit, Prince of Songkla University, Hadyai Songkla Thailand 90112
YES, Intervention Study
40 Turkish Dr. Nermin Ciftci Aridag, Yildiz Teknik Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi, Davutpasa Kampusu, TR-Esenler Istanbul, Turkey YES (new, 2016)